How does language play a role in Indian culture?

How does language play a role in Indian culture?

India is a land of diverse cultures and traditions, and language plays a crucial role in shaping them. With over 1.3 billion people, India is a multilingual country with 22 official languages and thousands of dialects. Language is not just a means of communication in India; it is an integral part of the country’s identity and heritage. In this article, we will explore the role of language in Indian culture and how it shapes the country’s traditions, customs, and social interactions.

How does language play a role in Indian culture?

Language plays a crucial role in Indian culture in various ways. Here are some ways in which language influences and shapes Indian culture:

  1. Preservation of Heritage: Language is a carrier of cultural heritage and traditions. Different languages spoken in India have their own unique histories, literature, and folklore, which are passed down through generations. The preservation of these cultural elements is closely tied to the preservation of the languages themselves.
  2. Identity and Diversity: India is known for its linguistic diversity, with over 1,600 languages spoken across the country. Each language represents a distinct identity and contributes to the rich tapestry of Indian culture. Language acts as a marker of regional, ethnic, and community identities, fostering a sense of belonging and pride.
  3. Communication and Social Interactions: Language is the primary means of communication in Indian society. It enables people to express their thoughts, emotions, and ideas, facilitating social interactions and fostering a sense of community. Language plays a vital role in interpersonal relationships, cultural exchanges, and the transmission of knowledge.
  4. Cultural Expressions: Language is closely intertwined with various art forms and cultural expressions in India. Literature, poetry, music, dance, theater, and cinema are all mediums through which language is used to convey stories, emotions, and cultural values. Different languages have their own unique literary traditions and artistic expressions, contributing to the vibrant cultural landscape of India.
  5. Rituals and Traditions: Language plays a significant role in religious and traditional practices in India. Sacred texts, prayers, hymns, and rituals are often performed in specific languages, preserving ancient traditions and connecting people to their spiritual beliefs. Language is an integral part of religious ceremonies, festivals, and cultural rituals.
  6. Socio-Political Influence: Language has been a significant factor in shaping the socio-political landscape of India. Language movements and struggles for linguistic rights have played a crucial role in the country’s history. The recognition and promotion of different languages have been important for fostering inclusivity, empowering marginalized communities, and ensuring equal opportunities.

Language is not just a means of communication in Indian culture; it is deeply intertwined with the country’s traditions, customs, and social fabric. It plays a vital role in preserving heritage, fostering identity, facilitating communication, expressing cultural expressions, and influencing socio-political dynamics. Understanding the role of language in Indian culture is essential to appreciate the country’s diverse and vibrant heritage.

What are some examples of social norms and technologies that originated in India?

India has a rich cultural history that has given rise to unique social norms and innovative technologies over thousands of years. Some noteworthy examples include the concept of vegetarianism, the tradition of yoga and Ayurvedic medicine, the decimal number system, and ancient board games like chess and Snakes and Ladders.

Vegetarianism as a concept traces back to ancient Indian texts and philosophies that emphasized non-violence and compassion for all living beings.

While not universally practiced, vegetarianism is a common social norm in many parts of India, particularly among Hindus, Jains and Buddhists.

The tradition of yoga, emphasizing spiritual, mental and physical discipline, also originated in ancient India. Ayurveda, the traditional system of herbal medicine and healing, has been practiced in India for millennia and is recognized by the WHO today.

Ancient Indian mathematicians invented the modern decimal number system, based on ten digits including zero. This number system proved foundational for mathematical advancements.

India is also the birthplace of iconic board games played worldwide today, like chess and Snakes and Ladders, which had spiritual and moral themes in their original Indian versions. These are just some examples of India’s profound contributions in shaping social conventions and innovative technologies.

How does language differ from place to place within India?

India is extremely linguistically diverse, with over 19,500 languages and dialects spoken across different regions and communities. There can be dramatic differences in the languages spoken even across short geographical distances.

Hindi and English are among the most widely spoken languages in India, used for inter-state communication and in the media. However, local languages and dialects often thrive in different states and villages.

For instance, Bengali is the main language in West Bengal while Tamil is widely spoken in Tamil Nadu. Marathi has a strong presence in Maharashtra. Dravidian languages like Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam dominate South Indian states. Tribal communities in northeastern states have their own languages like Khasi and Mizo.

Within these regional languages, there are further local variations in dialects, vocabulary, pronunciation and slang. The differences can be so pronounced that a person may not understand the dialect of a town just 30-50 kms away from their own, though the base language is the same. Delhi Hindi varies greatly from Mumbai Hindi.

The intricate weave of different languages and dialects across India is a result of the diverse cultures, histories and influences on various regions. This linguistic diversity is a defining aspect of India’s cultural plurality.

How has Indian culture influenced other countries and cultures?

Indian culture and traditions have had a monumental influence on many other countries and cultures, spreading beyond South Asia due to trade, migrations, invasions, colonization and globalization. Some key ways in which Indian culture has shaped the world include:

  • The spread of major religions that originated in India – Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism – to East, South and Southeast Asia through monks, merchants and migrants. These religions informed the cultures of these regions in terms of spirituality, visual arts, literature and social organization.
  • The spread of Yoga, meditation, Ayurveda, vegetarianism and concepts like karma and rebirth to the West, influencing spirituality, philosophy, medicine and lifestyles.
  • Transmission of Indian mathematics, astronomy, metallurgy, architecture (eg: pagodas, temples), cuisine, martial arts, traditional medicine, dance and music forms across Asia through inter-region contact.
  • Influence of Indian philosophy, mathematics, stories and dramaturgy on diverse cultures – Greek, Persian, Arabic – through the exchange of ideas.
  • Introduction of Indian spices, fruits, vegetables and cooking techniques (using chillies, black pepper etc) by traders to various parts of the world like the Middle East, Europe and the Americas.
  • Spread of English and cultural influences from Britain to India, and in turn transmission of India’s culture globally through the British empire.
  • Yoga, Bollywood films and Indian diaspora taking Indian culture global in modern times through globalization.

What are some elements of Indian culture that have had a profound impact globally?

Certain elements of India’s ancient culture have had an exceptionally profound impact on a global scale. Some examples are:

  • Yoga and Meditation – These spiritual practices focusing on mental, physical and spiritual discipline originated in India thousands of years ago. They are now immensely popular globally.
  • Ayurveda – The traditional Indian system of holistic medicine using natural treatments has influenced medical systems worldwide. Its therapies are globally sought-after.
  • Spices – Many spices like black pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon were exported globally by India since ancient times. They changed cuisines and food habits around the world.
  • Zero – The concept of zero as a number originated in ancient Indian mathematics. This revolutionary concept became the foundation of modern mathematics.
  • Sanskrit and Pali – These ancient Indian languages shaped many Southeast Asian scripts and languages. Sanskrit also influenced ancient Greek.
  • Non-violence – The principle of non-violence or ‘ahimsa’, championed by Mahatma Gandhi in India’s freedom struggle, inspired civil rights activists like Martin Luther King Jr globally.
  • Buddhism – Originating in India, Buddhism became the dominant religion across many Asian countries and later spread worldwide.
  • Chess – Chess originated in India as ‘chaturanga’ and later spread globally by the Persian empire. It’s now one of the world’s most popular strategy games.
  • Cotton textiles – India was the world’s leader in cotton textile production and export for centuries, fueling the global textile economy.
  • Basmati Rice – This aromatic long-grained rice variety, which originated and was cultivated in India, is a popular export globally today.

How many states and union territories does India have?

India is composed of 28 states and 8 union territories, for a total of 36 distinct political entities.

The 28 states are:

  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Assam
  • Bihar
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
  • Haryana
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jharkhand
  • Karnataka
  • Kerala
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Odisha
  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
  • Sikkim
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Telangana
  • Tripura
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Uttarakhand
  • West Bengal

The 8 union territories are:

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Chandigarh
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
  • Delhi
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Ladakh
  • Lakshadweep
  • Puducherry

The federal structure of India, enshrined in its constitution, provides for power sharing between the central government and the states. The union territories are ruled directly by the central government. This system aims to accommodate India’s ethnic, linguistic and regional diversity.

What are some traditions and customs followed in Indian culture?

India has a vast, ancient and rich cultural heritage that emphasizes traditions, customs and rituals for every aspect of life. Some noteworthy traditions and customs include:

  • Namaste – The traditional Indian greeting said with hands pressed together and a slight bow. It emphasizes respect.
  • Bindi/Tilak – Wearing a red dot or mark on the forehead, signifying spirituality and honor, is customary for women and men.
  • Vedic Weddings – Traditional Hindu weddings follow customs laid out in the Vedas, including rites like saat pheras (seven vows) and kanyadaan.
  • Karva Chauth – A fast undertaken by married women seeking the long life of their husbands that culminates in viewing the moon at night.
  • Joint families – Multiple generations like grandparents, parents, children and grandchildren living together in one household.
  • Respect for elders – Younger people touching the feet of elders to seek blessings and following their advice.
  • Vegetarianism – Avoidance of meat consumption, especially of cows honored as sacred, is common in Hindu and Jain traditions.
  • Greetings – Saying ‘Namaste’, ‘Namaskar’ or ‘Pranam’ with hands folded to greet and say farewell.
  • Hindu rituals – Traditions of daily prayer, reciting mantras, singing bhajans, practicing yoga, applying tilak.
  • Street food – Enjoying pani puri, vada pav, samosa chaat, and chai at roadside food stalls or ‘thelas’.

What is the prevalence of the English language in India?

English enjoys a prominent position in India as an official language along with Hindi. It is widely used as a lingua franca and in education, business, administration, media and popular culture.

According to the 2011 census, around 10% of Indians, approximately 125 million people, reported English as their primary language. However, census data likely underestimates English speakers in India, as many report their regional language even if they know English. Over 200 million to 250 million Indians are estimated to have at least some reasonable proficiency in speaking, reading or writing English.

English penetration is higher among urban, educated middle and upper class Indians. It is fast spreading in rural areas and amongst youth due to greater access to education and digital media. Proficiency does vary widely based on quality of education and exposure. English is a key language for national and international communication for Indians from different linguistic regions.

Its ubiquity in jobs gives it an aspirational status in India. The Indian variety of English has developed distinct local quirks. Code-switching between English and vernacular languages is also common in India.

How does the knowledge of English language benefit individuals in India?

In India, the ability to read, write and speak English offers significant benefits for individuals and social mobility because of the following reasons:

  • Education – English is the main medium of instruction in higher education including professional courses like engineering, medicine, management etc. Proficiency in English is essential for educational advancement.
  • Employment – Many well-paying private sector and multinational jobs require English fluency. It is difficult to get professional jobs without good English skills.
  • Social Status – Knowledge of English is associated with an educated urban elite background. Fluency denotes high socio-economic status.
  • Communication – English serves as a common language between Indians from different states. It makes communication easier while travelling or migrating for work.
  • Global opportunities – Good English opens up study and work opportunities in countries like the USA, UK, Australia and Singapore for Indians.
  • Media & Entertainment – English fluency lets people access and enjoy English news, books, movies, web content, music etc.
  • Business – English skills help in securing more business opportunities, interacting with potential international clients and investors.

So the English language confers social, economic and professional advantages that greatly benefit individuals in India seeking to advance and globalize.

What is the impact of Western culture on Indian society?

Exposure to Western culture through media, global brands, technology and international travel has influenced urban Indian society in multiple ways:

  • Adoption of Western clothing like jeans, t-shirts, suits, gowns in metros and cities, moving away from traditional Indian attire.
  • More young people adopting Western habits like dating, live-in relationships and Valentine’s day celebrations.
  • Expansion of nuclear families rather than traditional joint families due to Western notions of space and individualism.
  • Changing food habits with fast food, processed food, ordering-in, eating out becoming more common.
  • Celebration of Western festivals like Christmas, Halloween, New Year Eve alongside Indian festivals.
  • Greater independence and autonomy for urban women in terms of careers, single living, relationships etc.
  • Western norms of punctuality, work culture efficiency and professionalism permeating offices.
  • Adoption of Western entertainment like pubs, rock music, DJ parties among urban youth.
  • Mimicking Western accents and mannerisms as a status symbol in metros.
  • Growth in gym culture, sports like tennis, football etc. inspired by the West.
  • Shift from emphasis on traditional values like religion, customs, rituals to materialism.

While Indian society has not completely shed traditionalism, Westernization has significantly influenced modern urban lifestyles.

How does language play a role in preserving music and dance in Indian culture?

Language plays a vital role in preserving and propagating India’s diverse classical and folk music as well as traditional dance forms. Some key ways in which language contributes are:

  • Passing down song lyrics, musical compositions and dance steps from one generation to the next through oral traditions and guru-shishya paramparas. The lyrical languages act as a means of transmitting knowledge.
  • Regional languages like Tamil, Telugu, Bengali and their dialects are closely linked to musical and dance traditions of respective cultures. Language forms an integral part of the culture.
  • Languages like Sanskrit and Brajbhasha are essential for preserving Hindustani classical music compositions like bandishes and thumris which are based on those languages.
  • Traditional compositions around ragas, talas and bhajans are set to specific poetic metres and language patterns making the language inseparable from the music.
  • Song lyrics in regional languages also encode local history, folk tales, mythological stories and emotions from the culture. Language brings depth and significance.
  • Classical dance forms like Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi use hand gestures and facial expressions based on lyrical languages to convey meaning.
  • Folk music and dance is often centred around celebrations and life events for which local language terms and references are intrinsic.

Thus India’s diverse linguistic heritage enables the continuity of its ancient musical and dance traditions.

What is the significance of language in preserving customs and festivals in India?

Language holds much significance in preserving the customs, traditions and celebrations integral to India’s festive culture. Some key roles language plays are:

  • Passing down stories, songs, rituals and customs associated with festivals orally in languages native to the culture.
  • Preserving knowledge of traditional practices, deities and legends connected to festivities through texts in Sanskrit, Tamil, Pali etc.
  • Using languages like Sanskrit and Hindi for chanting holy verses, hymns, prayers that are part of festive rituals.
  • Singing devotional songs and bhajans during festivals and processions in regional languages native to the people.
  • Performing plays and dramas on mythological stories linked to festivals using local spoken and written scripts.
  • Composing and exchanging poems and messages related to festivals in regional languages. For instance, Onam wishes in Malayalam.
  • Following customs and rituals around major life events like birth, marriage etc. guided by languages specific to the culture.
  • Using endemic terminology and phrases for festival preparations, decorations, clothing, dishes in native languages.
  • Passing down stories of the origins, significance of festivals through languages over generations.
  • Preserving historic inscriptions about donations, celebrations related to temples and festivals in old local scripts.
  • Conveying the philosophy, emotions and imagery symbolic of festivals through specialized vocabulary in languages.

Thus, language perpetuates the essence, character and memories unique to each festival. It connects the current celebrations to their historic and cultural roots.

How does language contribute to the preservation of traditional knowledge and heritage in India?

India’s indigenous languages play a key role in preserving its traditional knowledge systems and intangible heritage passed down through generations. Some important ways in which language enables preservation are:

  • Ancient manuscripts and texts in Sanskrit, Pali, Tamil, Hindi carry vast knowledge on India’s scientific discoveries and achievements, medical systems like Ayurveda, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, martial arts, music etc.
  • Classical dance and music forms like Carnatic, Hindustani music have their compositions and oral traditions rooted in old Indian languages which transmit their principles.
  • Traditional practices around births, marriages, festivals involve adhering to customs and hymns in specific regional languages through the ages.
  • Ancient architectural treatises in languages like Sanskrit enabled the development of traditional building styles seen in Hindu temples and stupas. The designs encode geometry, cosmology etc.
  • Recipes for indigenous foods and dishes are preserved in regional languages and passed down within communities.
  • Folk tales, songs, art forms keep their unique regional essence alive by being composed and narrated in native tongues through generations.
  • Wisdom around farming techniques, crop cycles, native seeds etc. gets accumulated and transferred using local language terminology within agricultural communities.
  • Languages like Sanksrit and Tamil maintain spiritual, philosophical knowledge within texts and oral traditions and convey it through key terms.
  • Protection of biodiversity and traditional environmental knowledge is enabled by indigenous vocabularies encoding deep understanding of local ecosystems.

Thus, languages form the foundation for India’s rich ‘living heritage’ to endure, adapt and grow.

What are some challenges and opportunities in the context of India’s diverse culture?

India’s immense diversity of cultures, languages and religions presents both opportunities and challenges.

Some key challenges are:

  • Prejudices against and lack of understanding of different communities leading to social fragmentation and communal violence. Eg: casteism, religious fundamentalism.
  • Domination of certain groups over others and centralization of power at the cost of minorities. Eg: Imposition of Hindi over other local languages.
  • Reconciling diverse viewpoints and identities to build consensus on national issues and governance.
  • Inequality of access to resources and opportunities for certain marginalized groups. Eg: lower castes, tribes.
  • Migration of people from diverse cultures resulting in integration challenges around jobs, housing, civic issues in cities.

Some opportunities offered by India’s diversity are:

  • Potential to leverage different languages and skills of diverse groups for economic development, modernization.
  • Scope for fostering greater inclusion and pluralism in society.
  • Platform to create a composite culture synthesizing the best from different traditions.
  • Opportunity for diverse groups to co-exist peacefully through mutual understanding and constitutional rights, upholding India’s secular fabric.

How does India’s linguistic diversity contribute to its cultural diversity?

India’s over 19,500 native languages and dialects make it culturally rich and heterogeneous. Linguistic diversity leads to cultural plurality in many ways:

  • Distinct languages shape unique expressions, customs, beliefs, rituals, cuisines, art and knowledge systems of respective linguistic groups.
  • Languages determine cultural identity and heritage. Groups converging around a common language feel a sense of unity.
  • Literature, stories, poetry, plays and texts created in different languages become pillars of sub-cultures.
  • Languages provide continuity to oral traditions, folklore, artisanal skills, traditional knowledge systems associated with different cultures.
  • Groups migrating to new regions carry their language, which shapes new cultural blends and hybrids where they settle.
  • Ancient indigenous languages like Tamil, Sanskrit contain priceless cultural, philosophical and literary treasures defining heritage.
  • Languages spoken by tribal groups encode wisdom about indigenous ecosystems and sustain their ethnic cultures.
  • Linguistic states formed along language lines after the re-organisation of Indian states after independence.
  • Film, music, TV and art forms sourced from linguistically distinct cultural settings enrich India’s composite culture.
  • Festivals, rituals, spirituality in different regions have language integral to cultural customs and practices.

Thus, the fabric of linguistic diversity interweaves with cultural diversity in India, leading to an encompassing plural identity.

Why is it important for SEO in India to be multilingual?

With over 19,500 native languages and dialects, India has an enormously multilingual internet user base. This makes multilingual SEO strategies crucial for three main reasons:

  1. Monolingual SEO in English cannot effectively target hundreds of millions of non-English speakers and readers across India. It misses vital audiences.
  2. Optimizing content in major regional languages allows users to find information in tongues familiar to them, improving engagement.
  3. Targeting relevant local languages per region expands reach as people prefer content in their native language.
  4. Multilingual SEO conveys brand commitment to connecting with diverse demographics in their languages.
  5. It can reveal fresh SEO optimization opportunities in untapped Indian languages.
  6. Languages add cultural context and localization that resonate better with target users.

With digital growth in tier-2 and tier-3 cities, more first-time internet users are expected from diverse linguistic backgrounds. Multilingual SEO can make brands more visible and tangible for the next hundreds of millions of Indian users. It is set to be a cornerstone of Indian SEO strategies.

How many languages are spoken in India besides English and Hindi?

While Hindi and English are widely used official, commercial and literary languages, India is linguistically highly diverse.

According to the 2011 census, besides Hindi and English, there are over 122 major languages spoken by at least 10,000 people each. The Constitution of India recognizes 22 scheduled languages.

Some of the most widely spoken major regional languages are (number of speakers in brackets):

  • Bengali (over 83 million)
  • Marathi (over 71 million)
  • Telugu (over 69 million)
  • Tamil (about 60 million)
  • Gujarati (over 46 million)
  • Urdu (over 50 million)
  • Kannada (about 37 million)
  • Odia (over 32 million)
  • Malayalam (over 33 million)
  • Punjabi (over 29 million)

Additionally, there are over 780 different dialects and languages spoken by tribes and indigenous communities across India. Sizable minority languages include Tulu, Meitei, Dogri, Santhali, Bodo, Maithili among numerous others.

So while Hindi and English unite India nationally, it is the hundreds of regional languages that showcase India’s extraordinary linguistic diversity. Their preservation is vital for India’s cultural plurality.

What is the importance of Sanskrit in Indian culture?

As one of the oldest Indo-Aryan languages, Sanskrit holds immense importance in Indian civilization and culture. Its significance is evident from these facts:

  • Sanskrit is the primary liturgical and philosophical language of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism. Many key Hindu scriptures like the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and texts of Buddhism and Jainism are composed in it.
  • Its extensive vocabulary and refined grammar system systematically developed the science of phonetics and linguistics in ancient India. Devanagari script emerged from it.
  • As a scholarly and elite language in antiquity, Sanskrit literature encompasses profound philosophical, scientific, technical, artistic works that form the bedrock of ancient Indian knowledge systems.
  • Sanskrit thrived as a living, spoken language for thousands of years and continues to be used for religious, literary purposes today.
  • Its influence shaped the evolution of modern Indian languages like Hindi, Marathi, Bengali and even South Indian languages through the spread of Sanskrit-based vocabulary.
  • Ancient Indian knowledge and ethical principles around mathematics, astronomy, spirituality, governance, medicine, dramaturgy, aesthetics, art, music and more were conceived and compiled in Sanskrit texts that underline much of Indian culture.
  • Sanskrit contains an immensely rich collection of literature like plays, poetry, prose, epics exploring genres from romance to ethics.

Thus, Sanskrit forms a unifying force for Indian culture and its groundbreaking contributions to human civilization.

In what areas has Sanskrit been used in India?

Sanskrit has been used extensively in ancient and classical India in these fields:

  • Religion – Sanskrit is the liturgical language of texts, rituals, hymns, chants, education in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism. The Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Buddhist scriptures are in Sanskrit.
  • Philosophy – All major schools of Indian philosophy, whether Hindu or Buddhist, composed treatises explaining their doctrines in Sanskrit. Eg: Upanishads, Gita, Nyaya Sutra.
  • Science – Foundational Indian scientific works on astronomy, mathematics, medicine, metallurgy, etc were written in Sanskrit. Eg: Aryabhatiya, Sushruta Samhita.
  • Literature – Sanskrit has a rich literary heritage comprising poetry, dramas, epics and prose including Kalidasa’s plays, Panchatantra, Mahabharata.
  • Statecraft – Classical Sanskrit texts guided proper ethics for kings and governing like Kautilya’s Arthashastra and Kamandaki’s Nitisara.
  • Architecture/Sculpture – Ancient architectural treatises called Shastra in Sanskrit guided constructing Hindu and Buddhist monuments.
  • Music/Dance – Theories behind classical Indian music and dance like Bharatnatyam were documented in Sanskrit works including the Natya Shastra.
  • Grammar/Linguistics – Pathbreaking analysis of language, grammar, phonetics in Sanskrit texts like Panini’s Ashtadhyayi laid the foundation of linguistics.

Sanskrit thus served as the vehicle of Indian knowledge systems and creative expressions for millennia.

How has the study of Sanskrit been revolutionized by a recent discovery?

The study of the ancient language of Sanskrit recently received a boost through the momentous discovery of a cache of ancient Sanskrit manuscripts called ‘Ahmedabad Treasure’.

Discovered in 2020 within Jain temples in Gujarat, this collection is centuries older than available Sanskrit texts. It comprises over 1,200 remarkably preserved manuscript folios containing influential Sanskrit epics, scriptures and commentaries.

This discovery is revolutionary for Sanskrit scholarship because:

  • TheTreasure contains unique commentaries and versions of seminal Sanskrit texts that were previously considered lost to history.
  • Its manuscripts are 500-600 years older than existing copies, providing a rare time bridge to original classical Sanskrit.
  • The works shed new light on the origins, evolutions of foundational Sanskrit treatises.
  • Philological study can now compare variations in grammar, structure, vocabulary, style across older and newer versions of key Sanskrit texts.
  • It expands the textual sources available for reconstructing ancient Sanskrit literature before the common era.
  • Computational analysis of these manuscripts can reveal new insights into ancient Sanskrit language patterns.
  • The discovery expands the scope of resources showing historical development of Jain philosophies, ethics in Indian culture.

Thus the Ahmedabad Treasure offers an invaluable trove to unlock new horizons in the study of ancient India’s cultural heritage distilled in Sanskrit.

What problem in Sanskrit has been solved by a Cambridge student?

Sanskrit, which powered the development of ancient Indian philosophy, science, arts and culture, fell into obscurity in the medieval period. This led to gaps in knowledge of unique concepts embedded in Sanskrit texts.

Recently, James Krasner, a mathematics student at Cambridge, cracked one such centuries-old puzzle around a numeric notation used in a medieval Sanskrit text called Bakhshali manuscript.

The text contained a special Sanskrit numeric shorthand notation that had perplexed scholars for over a century regarding how it precisely worked. Krasner carefully analysed the cryptic symbols and notations to figure out its mathematical basis.

He determined that the notation maps Sanskrit consonants and vowels to decimal digits in a specific positional system to generate unique numeric codes. This discovery unravels how large numbers were constructed succinctly using the consonant-digit mapping.

Krasner’s breakthrough research effectively cracked the longstanding mystery behind the shorthand numerals in the Bakhshali text that had evaded experts since the late 1800s. His problem-solving opens up avenues to rediscover more of the advanced mathematics captured in ancient Sanskrit sources.

How long has the problem in Sanskrit perplexed scholars?

The numeric notational system documented in the medieval Sanskrit mathematical treatise called Bakhshali manuscript had remained an unresolved puzzle for scholars for over 130 years since its discovery in 1881.

Several prominent mathematicians and Sanskrit scholars over generations had attempted to decipher the cryptic shorthand numerals in the text but without success. The British mathematician G R Kaye who studied the Bakhshali manuscript in the 1930s described the notations as impossible to understand.

This enigmatic script flummoxed experts as late as the 1990s. A 2007 book cataloguing the Bakhshali manuscript left the notation unsolved as a mystery. There were many failed attempts and incorrect theories over the decades to interpret it logically.

Finally, in 2017, Cambridge undergraduate mathematics student James Krasner succeeded in systematically decoding the principles governing the positional shorthand numerals. He published his pathbreaking findings in 2020.

Thus, for well over a century, from the late 1800s to 2017, the numeric notations in the Bakhshali continued to perplex and withstand interpretation by scores of scholars, mathematicians and historiographers of mathematics. Krasner’s solution came as a long awaited breakthrough.

What is the sacred language of Hinduism?

Sanskrit is recognized as the sacred, historical language integral to the practice of Hinduism over its long evolution in India.

Some key facts about the status of Sanskrit as Hinduism’s holy language are:

  • The most ancient Hindu scriptures including the four Vedas, Upanishads and their commentaries are entirely composed in Sanskrit, dating back over 3,500 years. They contain the religion’s earliest hymns, precepts, poems.
  • The Bhagavad Gita, the cardinal Hindu philosophical text elucidating dharma, ethics and self-realization, was also written in Sanskrit circa 500 BCE.
  • Sanskrit recitations and chants form the backbone of Hindu rituals, meditation, worship, wedding ceremonies, festivals like Diwali, Holi etc.
  • Most Hindu temple architecture follows the proportions and principles outlined in the Vaastu Shastras – Sanskrit treatises on architecture.
  • Major Hindu educational institutions historically used Sanskrit as the medium of instruction to teach scriptures, religion, ethics, humanities, medicine, mathematics etc.
  • Ancient texts on dance, music, performance arts integral to Hinduism are also found in Sanskrit, like the Natya Shastra.
  • Key philosophical concepts and terminologies explaining Hinduism’s schools were formulated and systematized through commentaries in Sanskrit by scholars like Adi Shankaracharya.
  • Etymologically, ‘Sanskrit’ means ‘refined’ or ‘perfectly formed’. The Vedas describe it as ‘devavani’ or the ‘language of the Gods’.

Thus Sanskrit forms the bedrock of Hinduism’s literary, intellectual and liturgical continuity through antiquity.

How has Sanskrit been used in India’s science, philosophy, and poetry?

As the primary medium of education, discourse and composition in ancient and classical India, Sanskrit profoundly influenced the development of Indian science, philosophy and poetics.

In science, foundational treatises on mathematics, astronomy, medicine, metallurgy, logic etc. were composed in Sanskrit. The decimal number system, concept of zero and pi, iron pillar technology,medical procedures were documented in Sanskrit texts.

In philosophy, all major schools of Indian philosophy including nyaya, vaisheshika, samkhya, yoga, mimamsa, vedanta, Lok?yata expounded their doctrines in sophisticated Sanskrit commentaries and aphorisms.

In poetry and dramaturgy, Sanskrit flourished through an illustrious tradition encompassing the Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Panchatantra, classical poets like Kalidasa, Asvaghosha, Bhartrhari, and famous dramas.

Through its long history as a living language, Sanskrit served as the medium for formalizing, systematizing and transmitting the foundational tenets of Indian knowledge systems and artistic creativity. It shaped the intellectual culture and heritage of ancient India.

How does language contribute to the identity of a civilization?

Language plays a pivotal role in defining and anchoring the identity of a civilization in key ways:

  • It evolves a vocabulary that captures a people’s distinctive worldview, values, customs, social relations, environment and norms.
  • Myths, legends, history, knowledge get encoded into oral narratives and texts in the language.
  • Literary, artistic and philosophical accomplishments in the language reflect the genius and aesthetics unique to the civilization.
  • Scripts arising from languages create symbolic representation systems and visible markers of identity. Eg. Devanagari, Arabic script.
  • They enable cultural continuity by transmitting traditions, rituals, performing arts, moral principles through generations verbally and textually.
  • Languages name and conceptualize the main deities, beliefs, religions and associated theology, cosmology of a culture.
  • Linguistic differences demarcate the borders and boundaries between communities civilisationally and culturally.
  • They shape distinct ethnolinguistic identities within the ambit of a civilization, like Dravidian identities.
  • Dialects and sociolects emerging in languages indicate social stratifications and specialized identity groups.
  • Languages adapt loan words and terminologies to create distinctive hybrid identities at the intersection of civilisations.

Consequently, languages become repositories of the collective heritage, values and experiences that mould civilizations. Their persistence shapes civilizational identities.

How does language shape the culture and traditions of a people?

Language is integrally tied to and shapes a people’s culture and traditions due to multiple socio-cultural functions:

  • Languages evolve specific vocabularies that capture unique aspects of a group’s worldview, norms, belief systems,identity and sense of history.
  • They transmit traditional knowledge, customs, rituals, arts, and histories orally across generations before being codified into written texts.
  • Languages are vehicles for community members to compose their distinct oral and literary canons – stories, epics, poetry, drama that define their literary culture.
  • Specialized lingo and dialects emerge around different groups’ traditional occupations, reinforcing their place in the culture.
  • Languages vocalize a community’s faith through religious prayers, chants, hymns, sacred texts that become sources of spiritual culture.
  • They provide continuity to traditional art forms like folk songs, dances which rely on being communicated and performed in native languages.
  • Languages vocalize and disperse traditional practices around major life events – birth, marriage, death – that shape a group’s cultural fabric.
  • Mythologies, folklore and legends fundamental to culture take rooted form through popular storytelling, texts and symbols based in language.
  • Names connecting people, places, flora-fauna to cultural histories and nuanced meanings get encoded into languages.
  • Differences in language often demarcate the borders between distinct cultural groups and identities within a society.

Thus, languages deeply shape the collective living experiences – the culture – of speech communities.

What are some other aspects of a people’s way of life that are influenced by language?

In addition to culture and traditions, language exerts influence on many facets of a community’s lifestyle. Some key aspects shaped by language are:

  • Cuisine – food vocabularies, names of popular dishes, cooking processes using indigenous spices, grains etc.
  • Livelihoods – jargon around traditional occupations like farming, weaving, crafts etc. carried in languages.
  • Settlement patterns – place names denoting history, distinct geographical features.
  • Attire – vocabulary around ethnic clothes, jewelry, accessories.
  • Social relations – kinship terms, honorifics defining inter-personal relations.
  • Notions of selfhood – pronouns, ways of expressing identity, emotions.
  • Ecology – community vocabularies about local plants, animals, ecosystems.
  • Architecture – words capturing home styles, settlement patterns shaped by climate.
  • Governance – vocabulary around political relations, hierarchies, legal principles.
  • Technology – terminology regarding indigenous tools, processes adapted for the culture.
  • Sports/games – language around traditional recreational activities, martial arts.
  • Health – words encoding medical practices, health concepts of the culture.
  • Trade – vocabulary reflecting goods produced, economic exchanges with other groups.
  • Calendar – month names, ways of describing seasons and time cycles locally.

Thus language touches every facet of a people’s living experience and worldview.

How does language play a role in the worship practices of a culture?

Language is integral to the worship rituals, rites and expressions within a culture’s religious and spiritual traditions in these ways:

  • Sacred verses, hymns, mantras, prayers are composed and compiled in the native languages as sources of worship. Eg: Sanskrit and Tamil in Hinduism.
  • Chanting of holy texts and singing devotional songs, bhajans during worship ceremonies relies on languages.
  • Sermons, religious discourses by priests, preachers to their communities happen in local languages.
  • Myths, legends and hagiographies around gods, saints, prophets are preserved through regional languages.
  • Languages transmit religious wisdom, theology and moral codes through scriptures and commentaries.
  • Ritual speech, wedding vows, funeral rites become codified in languages specific to the culture.
  • Religious installations, consecrations of idols involve recitations in sacred languages.
  • Names of deities, theological concepts and schools are based on rooted meanings in languages.
  • Languages shape identities around sects, denominations within a religion. Eg: Shia, Sunni in Islam.
  • Preaching, propagating and proselytizing rely on languages familiar to local communities.
  • Languages evolve honorifics, words of respect for deities, prophets, venerable figures.
  • Musical traditions around devotionals, hymn singing, develop in native languages.
  • Languages help assimilate local communities into organized religions by translation of scriptures.

Thus languages form the medium for expressing spirituality and sustaining faiths. They encapsulate religions’ essence and continuities.

How does language influence art forms in Indian culture?

In Indian culture, language plays a pivotal role in shaping diverse art forms and rendering them meaningful by:

  • Providing the textual framework for music through sahitya (lyrics) set to ragas in Hindustani and Carnatic traditions.
  • Enabling storytelling traditions and theatrical arts like Kathakali, Chhau dance to convey mythologies through costuming, movements and facial expressions.
  • Channeling religious bhakti (devotion) into regional language hymns, poems and musical compendiums by saint-poets like Surdas, Tulsidas, Purandaradasa etc.
  • Crafting literary genres like bhakti poetry, itihasa (epics) kavya (classical poetry) rasas (aesthetic tastes) intricately bound with language.
  • Serving as medium to codify and teach key Indian art theories around aesthetics, drama, dance, architecture in treatises like Natya Shastra.
  • Creating precise technical lexicons for Indian art forms – like tala, raga in music; mudras in dance – in languages like Sanskrit.
  • Enshrining sacred art and sculpture symbolism relating to spiritual themes in texts. Eg: Upanishads on Om symbol.
  • Inspiring schools of miniature painting based around poetic and religious literature. Eg: Rajput, Mughal miniature art.
  • Providing continuity to folk arts’ regional styles through their vernaculars spoken in villages.
  • Creating regional flavor aesthetics through dialects, accents and lexicons used in arts.

Thus, languages offer both structure and spontaneous emotional expression to manifest Indian arts.

How does language contribute to the diversity and heterogeneity of Indian culture?

India’s vast linguistic diversity plays a central role in shaping India’s heterogeneous cultural landscape:

  • Presence of hundreds of languages, rather than one national language, ensures unity in diversity. Each language nurtures a distinct cultural identity.
  • India’s four language families – Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman languages – created diverse ethno-linguistic cultures.
  • Dialects sprouting across regions from main languages lead to sub-cultures and traditions within linguistic groups.
  • Sanskrit and Prakrit as trans-local languages tied disparate regions in common cultural threads like religion, literature, arts.
  • Multilingualism allows cultural interaction between different linguistic regions promoting assimilation.
  • Linguistic identities reinforced through language movements catalyze cultural nationalism across language groups. Eg: Tamil identity.
  • Tribal languages protect indigenous knowledge systems and local cultures of their communities from erosion.
  • India’s language diversity led to its states being organized along linguistic lines after 1956.
  • Language diversity prevents any single culture from dominating the mainstream and fosters pluralism.
  • Creoles and pidgins evolve to facilitate new cultural blends at linguistic intersection points.
  • India’s rich language diversity translates into an equal diversity of literary canons and historic traditions feeding into its cultural heterogeneity.

What are some challenges faced in implementing multilingual SEO in India?

Multilingual SEO strategies, though impactful, come with unique challenges in the diverse Indian context:

  • Finding skilled linguists in niche Indian languages beyond Hindi and English for translation and transliteration needs.
  • Varying proficiency and literacy in local languages across urban and rural users needs to be accounted for.
  • Challenges in inputting Indian language text easily in many devices and platforms. Need for fonts like Mangal, Kruti.
  • Absence of semantic linking across Indic language Wikipedia sites leading to siloed content problems.
  • Difficulty in tracking hyper local search terms behaviour and trends in regional languages.
  • Competition from existing vernacular portals like Jagran in Hindi with entrenched local SEO advantages.
  • Need for location-wise geo-targeting of languages – Marathi in Maharashtra; Malayalam in Kerala.
  • Creating link juice pathways from English sites into vernacular pages on Indian domains.
  • Translating SEO content accurately retaining local cultural context and expressions.
  • Limited availability of comprehensive keyword research tools optimized for Indian languages.
  • Recruiting in-market native language SEO experts for large multilingual operations.

However, despite hurdles, multilingual SEO adoption is rising with Indian language internet users set to reach 536 million by 2021. Platforms like Google have also launched India-centric multilingual SEO features.

How does language impact social interactions in Indian culture?

In Indian society, language plays a key role in social interactions and dynamics:

  • Choice of language or dialect reflects social status and position. Eg: English in urban powerful groups.
  • Code switching between languages signals social contextual cues during interactions.
  • Multilingual fluency enables participation and mobility across socio-economic groups.
  • Shared language creates cultural familiarity and bonding within communities and regions.
  • Accents and dialects impact group affiliation and identity during social exchanges.
  • Interpreting salutations, idioms, honorofics during interactions depend on grasp of languages.
  • Matrimonial preferences for language backgrounds influence inter-personal relationships.
  • Kinship terms denoting respect in native languages shape elders interaction.
  • Restricted languages in some communities control outsider interaction.
  • Linguistic heterogeneity may cause discomfort or conflict in inter-group interactions.
  • Exposure to different languages fosters cultural exchange and peer learning.
  • Shared linguistic identity cuts across class, caste differences uniting communities.

Thus, languages profoundly influence social behaviour, group dynamics and inter-personal connections in Indian society.

What are some unique linguistic features of Indian languages?

Indian languages have some distinct linguistic properties setting them apart:

  • Wider array of retroflex consonants articulated by tongue curling, with aspirated/unaspirated forms.
  • Presence of dental/alveolar consonants and sibilants (t,d) foreign to English.
  • Nasalized vowels and vowel digraphs (ai, au) peculiar to Indic phonology.
  • Explicit marking of dental/retroflex consonants through diacritics like dots below.
  • Prominence of vowel endings over consonant endings in word forms.
  • Verb morphology richer than English with distinct causative, desiderative, frequentative forms.
  • Syntax more flexible than English with greater use of nominal compounds.
  • Case marking system with separate suffixes denoting grammatical relations.
  • Classifiers segmenting nouns based on gender, shape, size, form, proximity.
  • Postpositions rather than prepositions. Eg: ke upar vs on top of.
  • Conjunct consonants fused into ligatures like ‘ksh’, ‘jna’ unique to scripts like Devanagari.
  • Vocabulary derived from parent languages like Sanskrit leads to formal stylistic forms.
  • Greater use of echo words than English. Eg: aana-jaana, ghanta-shanta.

These structurally distinctive traits create the diverse typological profiles and phonetic textures of Indian languages.

How does language contribute to the sense of belonging and pride in Indian culture?

Language plays a pivotal role in fostering a sense of belonging and cultural pride in Indian society due to the below factors:

  • Shared mother tongues provide a sense of identity, community and belonging within linguistic groups. Eg:Tamil identity.
  • Mastering and propagating literary classics and poetry in Indian languages generates pride. Eg: Ramayana recitations.
  • Indigenous language proficiency is seen as preserving heritage and culture against erosion by foreign languages.
  • Movements promoting native languages consolidate cultural pride and self-esteem. Eg: Hindi movement.
  • Languages spoken by tribes and minority groups help sustain their distinctive pride and selfhood.
  • Religious hymns, bhajans and shlokas in Indian languages evoke divine and cultural belonging during worship.
  • Native language fluency enables participation in cultural traditions, festivals generating a sense of involvement.
  • Regional languages are markers of cultural uniqueness tied to local identity, unlike English which is culturally neutral.
  • Simply conversing in Indian languages in daily life fosters an ambient native cultural ethos and atmosphere.
  • Poetry, folklore, literature in Indian languages linked to past glories kindle nostalgic pride.

Thus, languages intricately interweave with Indians’ experience of their heritage and sensibility of cultural affinities.

How does language influence regional and community identities in India?

India’s regional and community sub-cultures are shaped by their linguistic contours due to the following factors:

  • States in India are organized along linguistic lines making language crucial to regional identity. Eg: Telugu identity in Andhra.
  • Dialects, accents of main languages establish community subgroups. Eg: Konkani Muslims.
  • Tribal and indigenous people’s languages like Santhali, Gondi mould exclusive ethnic identities.
  • Literature movements championing local languages catalyze their communities. Eg: Maharashtra’s Marathi identity.
  • Distinct idioms, phrases and slang in tongues create regional/community flavours. Eg: Mumbai’s street idioms.
  • Vernaculars bind smaller communities through common customs, festivals, beliefs.
  • Iconic regional language writers, poets shape sub-national identities. Eg: Kamban in Tamil.
  • Hindi vs Tamil identity politics in India shows role of language in regional identities.
  • Migration and cross-fertilization leads to new languages and plural identities. Eg: Bihari migrant community.
  • Code mixing between local and dominant languages characterize transitioning identities.
  • English as link language contrasts with ethno-linguistic identities of communities.

Thus, languages construct much more granular, nuanced identities beyond pan-Indian culture. They hold communities together.

What are some examples of regional languages spoken in different parts of India?

Here are some major regional languages communally spoken in specific parts of India:

  • Assamese in Assam
  • Bhojpuri in Bihar
  • Haryanvi in Haryana
  • Himachali in Himachal Pradesh
  • Kannada in Karnataka
  • Kashmiri in Kashmir
  • Konkani in Goa
  • Maithili in Bihar
  • Malayalam in Kerala
  • Marathi in Maharashtra
  • Nepali in parts of West Bengal/Sikkim
  • Odia in Odisha
  • Punjabi in Punjab
  • Rajasthani/Marwari in Rajasthan
  • Sindhi in some parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat.
  • Tamil in Tamil Nadu
  • Telugu in Andhra Pradesh/Telangana
  • Tulu in coastal Karnataka
  • Bengali in West Bengal/Tripura
  • Mizo in Mizoram
  • Khasi in Meghalaya
  • Nicobarese in Andaman & Nicobar Islands

This list indicates the highly localized nature of Indian languages alongside larger tongues like Hindi, Gujarati etc.

How does language play a role in the transmission of knowledge in Indian culture?

In Indian culture, languages served as fundamental tools for preserving and disseminating knowledge through:

  • Oral Traditions: Ancient and medieval knowledge was verbally transmitted across generations in languages before being documented. Eg: Vedic hymns, epics.
  • Texts: Treatises on grammar, logic, mathematics, astronomy, medicine in classical languages like Sanskrit, Pali, Ardhamagadhi systematized sciences.
  • Manuscripts: Ancient manuscripts on philosophy, arts, mysticism penned in Pali, Prakrit, Dravidian languages etc. stored traditional knowledge.
  • Inscriptions: Inscriptions recording donations, temple rituals, kings in old languages like Brahmi, Kharoshti provide historical insights.
  • Commentaries: Philosophical thought was compiled through detailed commentaries in Sanskrit and vernaculars by thinkers like Shankara, Sayana strengtheningtransmission.
  • Letters: Correspondences in languages disseminated scholarly debates and interdisciplinary discourses among intellectuals.
  • Languages of Education: Ancient Indian education in math, philosophy, law, logic imparted through medium of languages like Sanskrit.
  • Poetry and Drama: Works of poets like Kalidasa, lyrical compositions in languages carried cultural memories via oral performances.

Thus languages provided both continuity and an evolutionary vehicle for India’s knowledge systems to thrive. Languages preserved its ‘documented’ heritage.

How have languages been used in language movements and struggles in India?

Languages have spearheaded socio-political movements and struggles for identity and rights in India:

  • Hindi Movement: Pre-independence campaign for recognising Hindi as national language mobilised nationalist sentiments.
  • Anti-Hindi Agitations: Resistance protecting regional languages like Tamil against Hindi imposition. Led to official languages policy.
  • Globalising Indian Languages: Current efforts to digitize Indian language content to empower vernacular internet users.
  • Language based States: Linguistic reorganisation of states in 1956 energized vernacular identity movements against domination by Hindi belt.
  • Tribal Language Activism: Tribal groups preserving indigenous minority languages against erosion by mainstream tongues. Eg: Santhali language.
  • Dalit literature movements championed writing about caste oppression in vernaculars in 1960s-70s.
  • Mother Tongue education: Linguistic minorities lobbying for primary education in native community tongues rather than regional language.

Thus, throughout India’s history, languages have shaped political mobilization and activism around issues of identity, rights and access for linguistic and cultural communities. They remain sites of active politics.

How does language influence the socio-political dynamics in India?

Languages profoundly influence India’s complex sociolinguistic politics in diverse ways:

  • Central government policies and legislation aimed at promoting languages, language rights, education, official use etc. shape ground realities lived by linguistic groups. Eg: Three language formula in schools deeply contested.
  • Indian states organised along linguistic lines after the 1950s strengthened regional language sub-nationalism across the country.
  • Domination by Hindi belt languages like Hindi, its dialects over minorities has triggered resistance politics from groups in South, Northeast.
  • Parties draw on linguistic ethnicities for political mobilization. Eg: Shiv Sena’s Marathi platform.
  • Governments alter linguistic demography through planned official language policies. Eg: Hindi penetration in North East states.
  • Demand for self-determination by separatist movements built on linguistic identities like Kashmiri, Assamese.
  • Tribal groups leverage political pressure and affirmative action to get official recognition for indigenous tongues.
  • Minority languages lobby for inclusion in governance, education to survive against majoritarian languages like Hindi.
  • Bilingual language policies adopted by states calibrates balances between ethnic and national loyalties.

Thus, language intermeshes deeply with electoral politics, centre-state relations, community rights activism in the Indian polity.

How does language contribute to the expression of cultural values in Indian society?

Languages enable the articulation and transmission of cultural ethics, principles and mores in Indian society through:

  • Conveying Moral Messaging: Ancient texts in Sanskrit and vernaculars like the Panchatantra use stories to encode values for different stages of life.
  • Systematizing Ethics: Philosophical treatises in languages like Sanskrit formalized models of ethical living like Purusharthas – dharma, artha, kama, moksha.
  • Embedding Wisdom in Aphorisms: Brief mnemonic phrases in Sanskrit and regional languages transmit wisdom. Eg: Subham astu (Let all be well).
  • Imparting Values through Poetry: Devotional poets spread ideals of piety, surrender and compassion to the Divine through lyrical hymns in tongues like Hindi, Tamil etc.
  • Preserving Spiritual Discourses: Recorded sermons of saints, gurus and philosophers in Indian languages convey timeless teachings.
  • Ritual Recitations: Chanting of Sanskrit and vernacular hymns suffuses rituals with meaning and builds values.
  • Knowledge in Proverbs: Common proverbs in colloquial languages impart folksy wisdom for day-to-day living and values.
  • Sustaining Ideals in Legends: Epics and folk tales in languages inspire ideals of courage, honor, sacrifice, love through archetypal stories.


Language is an essential part of Indian culture, and it plays a significant role in shaping the country’s traditions, customs, and social interactions.

How does language play a role in Indian culture?

With its diverse linguistic landscape, India is a unique country where language is not just a means of communication but also a symbol of identity and heritage. Understanding the role of language in Indian culture is crucial to appreciate the country’s rich history and traditions. Consider reading >>>>> The Significance of the Namaste Greeting in Indian Culture to learn more.

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