Ramlila and Where it Can be Witnessed in India

Ramlila is a performance art reenacting the legendary story of Lord Rama’s life that is celebrated with great fervor across India every year. These dramatic staged productions of the Ramayana epic provide devotees with an experiential way to connect with Lord Rama while embedding moral and spiritual lessons from his life. Witnessing a Ramlila performance is a vibrant way to truly immerse in traditional Indian culture.

Ramlila in India

The most renowned Ramlila celebrations take place over nine days during the Navaratri festival in key locations associated with the Ramayana. Some of the best places to experience the grand spectacle of Ramlila in India are Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, New Delhi and Almora.

In Ayodhya, the birthplace of Lord Rama, elaborate Ramlilas have been performed for over a century, bringing alive Lord Rama’s life through dialogues, costumed actors, masks and staging.

Similarly, Varanasi hosts traditional, passionate performances of Ramlila near the Tulsi Ghat and Assi Ghat, recreating scenes using large tableaux and statues. Devotees flock to Vrindavan to see Ramlila enacted by local Brahmins against the mystical backdrop of ISKCON temples.

The most famous Ramlila in modern India is the Ramlila of Ramnagar in Varanasi, which draws thousands for its month-long celebration with colorful processions and rituals. This nearly two-century old tradition follows a piousroutine worshipping Lord Rama daily.

Delhi also hosts a historic, month-long Ramlila with a carnivalesque atmosphere at the Ramlila Maidan that builds up to the grand burning of giant effigies of the 10-headed demon king Ravana. The tradition of Almora’s folk Ramlila featuring energetic rural dances and dhol drummers presents yet another delightful way to experience the Ramlila spectacle.

What is Ramlila and how does it relate to Indian traditions?

Ramlila is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Lord Rama as told in the epic Ramayana. Performed annually across India, often over 10-30 days, it brings together storytelling, dialogue, costume, dance, music and spectacle. Ramlila is deeply rooted in Hindu mythology and religious ritual.

The tradition originated over 400 years ago, emerging from ancient styles of folk theatre. Today, Ramlila serves to strengthen community spirit, transmit moral and cultural values, and bring the sacred stories alive. It is a celebration of the victory of good over evil. For Hindus, participating in or viewing Ramlila is considered an act of devotion.

Ramlila is an integral part of Indian culture. The Ramayana provides ideals and role models for relationships and ethical behavior. Ramlila allows devotees to immerse themselves in these sacred stories and characters. The ritual reenactment connects Hindus to their history, theology and shared identity.

2. What is the history of Ramlila in India?

The earliest Ramlilas emerged in the 16th century during the reign of the Mughal dynasty. They stemmed from ancient styles of folk theatre like Raslila, which dramatized the life of Krishna. One of the first recorded Ramlilas was by the Bhakti saint Tulsidas in the 1500s in Varanasi.

In the 18th-19th centuries, elaborate Ramlila performances became popular under royal patronage, like in Ramnagar. Local feudal lords and kings performed grand renditions that could last a month. The Ramlila tradition flourished across North India and was also adopted in South India.

After India’s independence in 1947, state patronage ended but Ramlila continued, often funded by temples and communities themselves. Troupes added contemporary issues and humor for relevance. With migration, Ramlila has spread across India and globally. Today, over 3,000 Ramlila celebrations are estimated across India.

3. What are the different versions of the Ramayana that are performed in Ramlila?

There are numerous versions of the Ramayana epic that serve as the basis for Ramlila performances. These include:

  • Valmiki’s Ramayana: The original Sanskrit version, composed around 500 BCE. Most influential in North India.
  • Ramcharitmanas: A 16th century Hindi version by Tulsidas, popular in North and East India.
  • Kamba Ramayana: A 12th century Tamil version, influential in South India.
  • Telugu Ramayanas: 12th century renderings like those by Ranganatha and Ketana. Performed in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Assamese Ramayanas: Composed in the 15th-16th centuries by Madhava Kandali and others. Performed in Northeast India.
  • Bengali Krittibasi Ramayana: A 14th century version that is significant in West Bengal.
  • Kashmiri Ramavatar Charit: A 19th century rendition popular in Kashmir.

Ramlilas thus integrate local language, customs and performance styles while retaining the universal Ramayana essence.

4. How is Ramlila performed in different parts of India?

Ramlila performances vary across India, incorporating local styles and practices:

  • Northern Ramlilas feature dramatic dialogues, stylized acting and lavish costumes. Musicians accompany with cymbals, drums and horns.
  • In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Ramlilas integrate temple rituals, folk dances like Kolattam, and Carnatic music.
  • Kerala Ramlilas have colorful Kudiyattam-style costumes. Percussion like chenda and elephant processions are common.
  • Bengali Ramlilas use intimate indoor stages. Dhol drummers and poetic dialogues are signature features.
  • Maharashtrian Ramlilas integrate folk forms like Tamasha alongside Sanskrit verses and Marathi scripts.
  • Goan Ramlilas incorporate western instruments like the violin alongside Konkani hymns in a Carnival-style parade.
  • Kashmiri Ramlilas feature sung narratives, masked characters, and the unique dance form Bhand Pather.

This diversity represents India’s composite culture while retaining the essence of Rama’s story.

5. What are the different characters and scenes that are depicted in Ramlila?

Some prominent characters and scenes from the Ramayana epic that are brought alive through Ramlila performances include:

  • Lord Rama’s youth, marriage to Sita, 14 year exile, kidnapping of Sita, alliance with Vanaras, defeat of Ravana and eventual homecoming.
  • Other central characters like Ram’s brothers Lakshman, Bharat and Shatrughan.
  • Rama’s parents Dasharatha and Kaushalya.
  • Sita’s agnipariksha (trial by fire) to prove her purity.
  • Battle scenes between Rama’s Vanara army and the 10-headed demon Ravana.
  • Death of Ravana and coronation of Rama upon return to Ayodhya.
  • Prominent sages like Vishwamitra and Valmiki.
  • The role of Hanuman – leader of the Vanaras and devotee of Ram.

Ramlilas bring all these characters and events to life on stage for over 10 nights. Theatrical flair makes it engaging across rural and urban settings.

6. How does Ramlila reflect the cultural and religious diversity of India?

Ramlila incorporates India’s diverse artistic traditions while retaining a common Hindu cultural ethos:

  • Vernacular scripts demonstrate India’s linguistic diversity. Ramlilas performed in Avadhi, Maithili, Bengali, Telugu, etc.
  • Costumes and makeup reflect regional and community-specific designs. Rural troupes use local materials while urban ones have elaborate costumes.
  • Styles of music, dance and theatre showcase the diversity – from Northern dance-dramas to Southern Carnatic music.
  • Folk and classical art forms are seamlessly integrated in Ramlilas across India.
  • Participation transcends class, caste and gender. From rural villagers to urban elites, all take part in organizing and viewing.
  • Ramlila troupes often include people of different faiths, though the essence remains quintessentially Hindu.
  • Common use of Sanskrit verses and themes from Valmiki’s Ramayana underline the cultural unity.

This blend of diversity within a unifying Hindu framework makes Ramlila a true reflection of India’s composite heritage.

7. What is the significance of Ramlila in Hinduism?

Ramlila holds great spiritual and cultural significance in Hinduism:

  • Brings sacred teachings and role models from the Ramayana into the lives of devotees.
  • Drama and spectacle make it engaging and accessible, beyond just reading scriptures.
  • Allows devotees to reflect on dharma and righteous conduct, inspiring virtuous behavior.
  • Builds devotion towards Lord Rama as the ideal man and avatar of Vishnu.
  • Participants earn religious merit by taking on roles and organizing festivals.
  • Dedicating time and resources to Ramlila preparations is considered devotional service.
  • Brings Hindu community together to celebrate shared culture, ethics and identity.
  • Passing on the tradition to the next generation preserves heritage.
  • Ramlila bridges social divisions, with all sections of society participating.
  • Serving as a medium of religious teaching, ethical growth and spiritual devotion.

8. How has Ramlila evolved over time and across different regions of India?

Ramlila has constantly evolved across centuries, regions and socio-political contexts:

  • From ancient folk theatre styles to sophisticated productions funded by royalty.
  • Vernacular renderings emerged alongside Sanskrit, expanding reach.
  • With patronage fading post-Independence, troupes innovated with contemporary themes and improvisation.
  • Mass media led to new performance styles and greater amplification.
  • Urban, female-centric troupes emerged, reinterpreting traditional roles.
  • Migrant communities have transplanted Ramlila through oral traditions worldwide.
  • Technology is utilized for lighting, effects, broadcasts and promotions.
  • English and fusion Ramlilas target youth and global audiences.
  • Comic and political undertones have increased relevance and engagement.
  • UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage status has increased focus on preservation.
  • Greater academic research increased understanding of history and aesthetics.

Ramlila thus remains a dynamic tradition, adapting creatively across time and geography.

9. What are the different styles and techniques used in Ramlila performances?

Ramlilas utilize a diverse range of performance styles and techniques:

  • Classical Sanskrit shlokas employed alongside vernacular renditions.
  • Traditional theatre forms like Nautanki (North India), Terukkuttu (Tamil Nadu).
  • Folk dances and music specific to each region like Chhau, Garba, Bhavai.
  • Traditional crafts for mask-making, costumes, jewelry and set design.
  • Natural materials like clay, straw, flowers, seeds for demon effigies.
  • Bright, ornate backdrops and costumes to differentiate characters.
  • Kohl-lined eyes, braided wigs and painted moustaches for dramatic effect.
  • Special effects like fire, explosions, smoke for battle scenes.
  • Motion capture and CGI in modern productions.
  • Intricate vocal modulation and gestures to convey emotions.
  • Accents, improvisation and contemporary references for relevance.
  • Elaborate staging, lighting and sound systems in professional troupes.

This unique synthesis makes Ramlila engaging, allowing innovation within tradition.

10. What is the role of music and dance in Ramlila?

Music and dance play a vibrant, multi-dimensional role in Ramlila performances:

  • Live music builds the ambience, creates dramatic impact and elevates the spirit.
  • Percussion like dhol, tabla, nagada drums accompany dialogues and action.
  • Songs and hymns in regional languages immerse devotees.
  • Styles used include Hindustani vocals, Carnatic music, Qawwali, and folk songs.
  • Dances like Garba, Chhau, Kathak, Bharatnatyam dramatize scenes.
  • Troupes have singers, musicians and dancers alongside actors.
  • Music amplifies the spectacle – from mystical forest exile scenes to fierce battles.
  • Rhythm, lyrics and nadaswaram build momentum during fight scenes.
  • Flute, veena, harmonium, and dholak set the mood in poignant scenes.
  • Songs by saint-poets like Tulsidas, Surdas resonate most with devotees.

Music and dance thus amplify devotion, drama and aesthetic appeal. Ramlila comes fully alive through these complementary arts.

11. How does Ramlila contribute to the preservation of Indian traditions?

Ramlila plays a powerful role in preserving and transmitting India’s living heritage:

  • An unbroken tradition spanning over 400 years, passed down generations.
  • Mantains ancient performing art forms that are in decline elsewhere. Eg: Chhau, Prahlad Natak, Terukkuttu.
  • Promotes craftsmanship for masks, costumes, jewelry and effigies.
  • Keeps archaic dialects, scripts, musical instruments alive.
  • oral traditions and community participation sustain Ramlila without institutional support.
  • Temples, trusts and families uphold lineage-based troupes as inheritors of tradition.
  • Ramlila preserves the ethos of the Ramayana and Sanatana Dharma for posterity.
  • Global Ramlilas have transplanted traditions abroad through migrant artists.
  • Ramlila is specifically showcased by India globally as intangible cultural heritage.
  • Veteran gurus train young apprentices, ensuring knowledge transfer.
  • Providing a sacred space for artists outside the mainstream entertainment industry.

Ramlila thus ensures India’s intangible heritage remains dynamic, not just fossilized museum pieces.

12. What are the different themes and messages conveyed through Ramlila?

Some prominent themes and messages conveyed through the Ramlila tradition are:

  • Victory of good over evil, dharma over adharma. Rama as ideal hero.
  • Importance of ethical conduct, loyalty, fraternal love as embodied by Rama.
  • Wisdom, restraint and morality as exemplified by Rama and Sita.
  • Inner divinity and karma doctrine – destiny follows deeds.
  • Allegory of internal struggles between good and evil within every being.
  • Power of devotion, humility and sacrifice as seen in Hanuman.
  • Dangers of passions like desire, ego and greed as shown by Ravana.
  • Dharma as duty – exemplified by Lakshman’s service to Rama.
  • Feminine power, grace and purity manifest in Sita.
  • Balance of nurturing and righteous masculinity in the ideal man Rama.
  • Harmony between man and nature.

Ramlila thus promotes dharmic living through the Ramayana’s ethical message, beyond just entertainment.

13. How does Ramlila connect with other Indian festivals and traditions?

Ramlila connects seamlessly with other Hindu festivals and artistic traditions:

  • Preceding Diwali and Dussehra, which also mark Rama’s victory over Ravana.
  • Rama’s return to Ayodhya after exile coincides with Diwali, symbolizing triumph of light over darkness.
  • Effigies of Ravana burnt on Dussehra are prepared by Ramlila artists.
  • Temple processions, fairs and food stalls accompany Ramlila in the festive season.
  • Performance styles seamlessly integrate folk and classical dance and music forms.
  • Prabhat pheris singing devotional songs go around villages before performances.
  • Mythological plays like Raslila about Krishna’s life have inspired Ramlila format.
  • Rathyatras or processions accompany Ramlila in eastern and southern states.
  • In urban areas, laser shows, craft bazaars and food festivals supplement Ramlila.
  • Family pilgrimages to Ayodhya after playing roles, to seek Rama’s blessings.

The sacred and the festive thus blend joyously during the Ramlila season.

14. What is the role of community participation in Ramlila?

Ramlila is a vibrant platform for community participation and ownership:

  • Villages collectively organize logistics like budget, venue, costumes, artist lodging.
  • Amateur actors from all classes enthusiastically take up roles of all characters.
  • Locals provide accommodation and meals for traveling troupes.
  • Temples, trusts, clubs, families sponsor professional troupes.
  • Women participate as organizers, actors, singers, dancers, costume-makers.
  • Irrespective of religion or caste, all community members engage as spectators.
  • Makeshift tent settlements emerge around Ramlila performance spaces.
  • Elders share interpretations and guidence to younger actors.
  • Youth volunteers handle social media, videography and stage preparations.
  • Ramlila grounds often become informal marketplaces and social hubs.
  • Bind communities through a shared spectacular experience and divine connection.

This collective participation and ownership makes Ramlila a true people’s movement.

15. How has Ramlila been impacted by modernization and globalization?

Modernization and globalization have impacted Ramlila in both positive and negative ways:


  • Technological improvements in sound, lighting, effects for better spectacle and seamless telecasts.
  • Social media has expanded reach, engagement and discourse on Ramlila worldwide.
  • Adaptation to urban proscenium stages and global venues widens audience.
  • Greater archiving, research and sponsorships have improved production quality.
  • Revitalized interest in traditional arts like mask-making which received patronage.
  • Popular actors portraying Rama have brought in larger crowds.


  • Erosion of village-based, informal communal participation.
  • Commercialization leading to loss of religious ethos and local flavour.
  • Decline in craftsmanship for costumes, masks and effigies due to modern substitutes.
  • Loss of classical aesthetics due to western theatrical influences and CGI effects.
  • Mimicry of Bollywood replacing traditional styles of dialogue, music and dance.
  • Distortion of sacred texts and undue creative liberties eroding sanctity for some.

Ramlila continues to adapt creatively, balancing modernization with heritage preservation.

16. What are the controversies and debates surrounding Ramlila in India?

Some key controversies and artistic debates surrounding Ramlila include:

  • Calls for greater inclusion – allowing women in traditional male roles, marginalized communities to participate equally.
  • Political controversies around portraying Ravana as certain modern figures, allegories about current issues.
  • Protests by fringe right-wing groups against Ramlilas produced by other faiths, accusing misrepresentation.
  • Debates on modernizing the art form vs retaining its traditional sanctity and aesthetics.
  • Alleged vulgarity creeping in with double entendres, skimpy costumes just for spectacle.
  • Loss of community participation in urban, sponsored ‘star-studded’ productions.
  • Accusations of cultural appropriation and objectionable portrayals when adapted by Westerners.
  • Censorship and riots sparked in some places by dramatizing Sita’s agnipariksha scene.
  • Boycotts called against choreographers, actors, sponsors accused of insulting Hinduism.
  • Concerns of Ramlila being exploited for tourism and losing its devotional essence.

Ramlila evokes strong sentiments given the religious ethos. Maintaining artistic freedom while respecting sensitivities is an ongoing dialogue.

How has Ramlila been adapted and adopted by Indian diaspora communities around the world?

  • Ramlila has traveled with migrant artists since the 1800s to places like Trinidad, Fiji, South Africa, Malaysia etc.
  • It remains a powerful connect to Indian cultural identity and Hindu faith for diaspora communities worldwide.
  • Troupes adapt to circumstances – compressed timeframes, indoor stages, fusion with local art forms.
  • Language incorporates English alongside vernaculars, retaining Sanskrit shlokas and songs.
  • Global Ramlila troupes collaborate via videos and social media to exchange ideas.
  • Second and third generation diaspora youth maintain the tradition inherited from their migrant ancestors.
  • Ramlila also attracts non-Indian devotees abroad, gaining global appeal.
  • While retaining religious and community ethos, logistics are adapted based on local resources.
  • Combines tradition with creative innovation – multi-lingual scripts, global costume styles and aesthetics.
  • Ramlila connects diaspora youth to their roots, transmitting heritage.

The essence of Ramlila remains unchanged worldwide even as the form evolves across geographies and generations.


For devotees seeking to immerse themselves in Lord Rama’s inspiring life journey, attending a Ramlila celebration offers a one-of-a-kind spiritual experience.

Ramlila and Where it Can be Witnessed in India

The festive, ritualized re-enactments of Ramlila found in hallowed spots across India truly showcase the timeless cultural and religious significance of the Ramayana epic for Hindus.